This framework looks at the connections within natural ecosystems, management systems, and human systems as well as the connections between these three systems. It was adapted from Charles A. 2001. Sustainable Fishery Systems. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford UK, 384p.
This framework looks at the interactions and outcomes between resource systems, resource units, governance systems, and users (See: Ostrom E. 2009. A general framework for analysing sustainability of social-ecological systems. Science, 325: 419-422).
According to this theory fisheries and coastal governance consist of three systems: a governing system, a system-to-be-governed (natural and social-economic), and a system of governing interactions, linking the first two (See: Kooiman J., Bavinck M., Jentoft S., and Pullin R., eds. 2005. Fish for Life: Interactive Governance for Fisheries. Amsterdam University Press, Amsterdam).
This framework looks at the relationships between ecosystem services and well-being (See: MEA (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment). 2005. Ecosystems and human well-being: synthesis. Island Press, Washington, D.C).
This framework looks at nine important factors to understanding community resilience, people-place connections, values and beliefs, knowledge and learning, social networks, collaborative governance, economic diversification, infrastructure, leadership, and positive outlook (See: Berkes F., and Ross H. 2013. Community resilience: Toward an integrated approach. Society and Natural Resources, 26: 5-20).
In this framework conditions relevant to the community are identified. Researchers then look at adaption strategies to see how communities manage in the conditions they are exposed to. These two concepts are then combined to characterize current vulnerability and help estimate future vulnerability (See: Smit B., Hovelsrud G., and Wandel J. 2008. CAVIAR Community adaptation and vulnerability in Arctic regions. University of Guelph, Dept. of Geography Occasional Paper No. 28).
These frameworks are described in greater detail on pages 11-16 in our SES guidebook “Analysis of Social-Ecological Systems for Community Conservation.”